Gallipoli Campaign Begins
The fact that the Ottoman Empire actually entered the war brought great discomfort to England and France. The fact that the Bosphorus was closed meant that the Entente States had to be disconnected from Russia. “Jihad-i Ekber,” declared by the sultan, influenced the peoples of Arab countries, the Muslims in India and Pakistan, the British colonies. This meant new rebellions and new fronts, which would mean the loss of time and humanity, which were never accounted for.
Entente States had tried various ways to prevent the Ottoman Empire from entering the war. There were also proposals such as alleviating the capitulations they had in them. The involvement of the Ottoman State in the war had not come to the conclusion of Russia either. Concentrating on an attack from Germany at the beginning of the war, the Russians were now going to deal with the ‘Turks’ independence revolts in the Caucasus and Central Asia. They would have to open new fronts against the Ottoman Empire on the eastern border.
Russia’s situation became “Critical” when the throat was closed and the aid from its allies was cut. In this situation, England and Russia were the first to conceal the throat, which came to mind. According to the report, if the straits and Istanbul were taken under control, Russia would benefit from the great human power. For this, Russia had to be supported in the military and financial direction. This support would not be provided to Russia unless the straits were opened.
If the throat was successful, one of the Germans’ greatest allies would be deactivated, and the Balkan states, which were in an unstable situation and likely to go to war alongside the stronger side, would be on the verge of conflict. The merchant vessels, which have not survived the closed straits, will be rescued from the Black Sea, and Russia’s subcontinent will reach the Europe where the Entente soldiers will have their bellies.
After the straits were closed, Russia’s arsenal was about to be over. If the throat did not open, it was impossible for Russia to attack Germany from the east. When the Russian attack did not take place, the Germans would suffer in France. The Caucasus Front, which the Ottoman Empire opened on December 22, 1914 to relieve the allied Germany, would also fail with the seizure of the straits.
The planned operation to stop the progress of the Ottoman soldiers in the east was called “Great Show”. British Secretary of State Lond, Kitchener wrote on his letter to Winston Churchill on January 2, 1915, “A military demonstration to prevent the Ottoman military troops from going east, but only in DARDANEL”.
Sir Winston Churchill, who shares the same opinion with the British War Minister, Lord Kitchener, was convinced that the straits would pass through the sea very comfortably.
Already he saw the Ottoman Empire as the weakest enemy in the alliance bloc. According to his plan, he did not even have to bring the black army to fight in the western fronts. He believed that the navy’s top-of-the-line navy would keep the throats at gun fire and eliminate the Ottoman defense systems in a short time.
England – France
In fact, military sources in Britain and France were warning how impossible it was to cross the Straits without leaving the Gallipoli Peninsula. Winston Churchill, however, ignored these warnings and succeeded in persuading his cabinet members to warn him.
The British War Council convened on January 28, 1915, and decided a throat operation, whose ultimate goal was Istanbul. Four cruisers, 16 destroyers, 7 submarines and 21 mines have been given a search-and-scan ship, as well as newly built strong war ships such as Emre Queen Elizabeth and Irresistible of the Admiral Carden of the Naval Commander. The number of balls that all this fleet had was 187.